A few references:Lewin, K. 1958, ‘Group decision and Social Change,’ in ‘Readings in Social Psychology,’ eds. Maccoby, E. E, Newcomb, T. M. and Hartley, E. L. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, pp. 197–211.Hope, J. (2014). Provide leadership through changing times. Dean & Provost, 15(8), 1–5. https://doi-org.proxy1.ncu.edu/10.1002/dap.20076InstructionsFor this assignment, you are the superintendent of a large metropolitan school district. Many ill-managed changes at the federal, state, and local school levels have caused a drop in teacher and student morale/motivation. Principals have not been trained in leading the change, which is what you have discovered through your investigation. Using the five links to the models of change listed in your resources for this week, create a training manual Then, describe to your principal staff the way each model drives change and offer recommendations for your principal staff members to adopt one or more of the models, which are design.ed to manage change well within their schools.Presentation OptionsRequirementsManual5 pages, therefore be concise and direct to cover all five modelsReferences: Support your work with a minimum of six scholarly resources.Your presentation should demonstrate thoughtful consideration of the ideas and concepts presented in the course by providing new thoughts and insights relating directly to this topic. Your presentation should reflect scholarly writing and current APA standards.




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crisis management
The Advisory Board Speaks
Kathleen C. Boone
provides strategies for
managing crises that
require legal compliance
when they occur on your
campus. Page 6
Provide leadership through changing times
executive management
Attend a conference to
get new ideas and make
connections. Page 7
what would you do?
Find out how your
colleagues would respond
to being blamed for failed
initiatives. Page 8
Lawsuits & Rulings
Review summaries of
court cases and agency
rulings. Pages 9–11
Focus on Leadership
Todd Robert Petersen,
director of the Creativity
and Innovation Center at
Southern Utah University,
worked with a team to
develop an innovative new
curriculum. Page 12
2013 Winner
Specialized Information
Publishers Association Awards
By Joan Hope, Editor
If you’re a dean or provost, managing change is a big part of your job. And
it’s likely to become an increasingly important skill.
“Change is not going to be a once-in-a-while thing. It’s going to be the order of the day moving forward,” said Benjamin Akande, dean of the George
Herbert Walker School of Business and Technology at Webster University.
“The only person who likes change is a wet baby,” Akande said. But change
is not a bad thing. “It’s an opportunity to reevaluate,” he said.
Akande and other members of Dean & Provost’s Advisory Board participated
in a conference call to share their tips on managing in changing times.
“Right now, everybody is going through their version of change,” said Cynthia Worthen, vice president for academic affairs at Argosy University.
And whether the changes you are facing are positive or negative, your faculty
Continued on page 4.
Understand when to discipline, or ignore,
faculty members’ controversial speech
By Michael Porter, Esq.
Public employers, including educational institutions, welcomed the Supreme Court’s 2006 decision in Garcetti v. Ceballos. It held that the First
Amendment did not protect employee speech when it was made as part of an
employee’s official duties.
However, in Garcetti, the Supreme Court reserved judgment about whether
its holding applied to speech related to scholarship or teaching. But a recent
Ninth Circuit case held that Garcetti does not apply to such speech. While
binding only in the Ninth Circuit, a similar case exists in the Fourth Circuit:
Adams v. Trustees of the University of North Carolina. So campus officials are
beginning to realize they can’t rely only on Garcetti to address problematic
Best Instructional Reporting
© 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company • All rights reserved
DOI: 10.1002/dap.20076
Continued on page 3.
Dean & Provost
Get published
in Dean & Provost
For Dean & Provost writers’
guidelines, please contact the
editor, Joan Hope, at jhope@
wiley.com. ■
Donations reach
record levels
If your institution or unit is enjoying a surge of donations, that
corresponds with a nationwide
trend. Contributions rose 9 percent
in 2013, reaching a record total of
$33.8 billion. That’s according to
Voluntary Support of Education, a
report produced annually by the
Council for Aid to Education.
Learn more at http://cae.
category/annual-press-release. ■
Test results
showcase learning gains
When prospective students
and their parents visit campus,
they want to know what they will
be getting for their money if the
student enrolls.
At Kalamazoo College in Michigan, officials provide data to answer that question, according to
the Wall Street Journal. Students
there and at 29 other institutions
took a test on problem solving,
reasoning and critical thinking as
freshmen and seniors. The results
showed that Kalamazoo students’
improvement over time was in the
top 95th percentile in each area.
Accepted students who visit
campus attend a 15-minute presentation on the data. ■
Community colleges
provide broad benefits
The American Association of
Community Colleges released a
report showing that the impact of
community colleges on the United
States economy was $809 billion
for 2012. And students enjoyed
a return of $3.80 for every dollar
they spent on their educations.
Download Where Value Meets
Values: The Economic Impact of
Community Colleges at www
economicimpactstudy.aspx. ■
Grants help students
reduce work hours
Research has shown that working more than 15 hours a week
can hurt students’ grades and
progress toward graduation.
For information about any of these
publications, call Customer Service
at 888.378.2537.
Undocumented students
to receive aid
Financial aid for students
brought illegally to the United
States as children is a controversial topic in many areas. But the
House and Senate in Washington
state approved a bill that would allow these students to receive aid if
they met certain conditions, such
as living in the state for at least
three years before earning a high
school diploma or its equivalent,
reports The Seattle Times.
The governor was expected to
sign the bill. ■
Dean & Provost
Higher Education Publications
from Jossey-Bass/Wiley
• Enrollment Management Report
• FERPA Bulletin for Higher Education
• Recruiting & Retaining Adult Learners
• Disability Compliance for Higher
• Student Affairs Today
• Campus Legal Advisor
• Assessment Update
• The Department Chair
• The Successful Registrar
• College Athletics and the Law
• Campus Security Report
At Temple University in Pennsylvania starting next fall, students from low-income families
will be eligible for $4,000-per-year
grants if they agree to limit offcampus jobs to no more than 10
hours per week, according to The
Philadelphia Inquirer.
Officials found that needy students worked an average of 25
hours a week.
The program, called “Fly in 4,”
is designed to boost the four-year
graduation rate above its current
rate of 43 percent.
The program will cost Temple
about $2 million the first year and
$8 million per year by year four. ■
Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company
Sue Lewis
Joan Hope, Ph.D.
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April 2014
DOI: 10.1002/dap
© 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company
All rights reserved
Dean & Provost
Continued from page 1
statements by professors in classrooms.
And although First Amendment rights apply
only to public institutions, officials at private
ones with broad academic-freedom statements in
handbooks and other governing documents can
use the principles arising in these cases to assess
these issues.
The Ninth Circuit’s case is Demers v. Austin. David
Demers, a tenured communications professor at
Washington State University, distributed a pamphlet
to broadcast media, faculty and administrators. It
addressed the possible separation of faculties in different departments in his college. Demers prepared
it while serving on the college’s Structure Committee.
He also distributed draft chapters of a book critical
of academia and WSU.
Demers later sued, claiming his speech was
protected and that the university retaliated against
him by, among other things, giving him poor performance reviews and making false statements about
him. The district court granted summary judgment
in favor of WSU. Because the documents had been
written and distributed as part of Demers’ official
duties, it ruled he could not bring a First Amendment claim.
But on appeal, the Ninth Circuit held that Garcetti
did not apply to teaching and academic writing
“pursuant to the official duties of a teacher and
So are colleges and universities at a loss to address
faculty members’ activities? Probably not. If Demers
and cases in other circuits apply its reasoning and
take Garcetti out of the First Amendment equation,
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a professor still must prove the speech at issue is
related to a matter of public concern and that the
value of the speech outweighs any potential disruption it may cause.
Private grievances are not matters of public concern, and highly offensive speech that, for example,
creates a hostile educational environment based on
protected status is arguably not protected by the
First Amendment.
So how should you address faculty activities that
may create substantial disruptions on campus?
1. Consider the nature of the activity or
speech. Does it address a public matter or a private
matter? If the speech addresses the employee’s own
employment situation, it is probably private and not
protected or has little protection.
If it addresses a topic specific to the community
or politics, it will likely be protected speech. But
even if it is protected, if the speech does not relate
to the courses taught or the professor’s work but
he is engaging in it during class (resulting in him
not teaching course content), the institution may
argue the disruption it caused outweighs its value.
2. If you are going to discipline employees
based on their speech and its potential disruption, ensure you don’t over-rely on a Garcetti type
of analysis (i.e., indicating discipline is possible
because the speech at issue relates to the faculty
member’s duties). Instead, ensure there is a clear
record of how the speech substantially disrupted,
or is likely to disrupt, educational activity.
3. If a professor who engages in controversial
speech is not meeting expectations in unrelated
areas, address performance issues as you would
with any professor. The faculty member cannot
contend he engages in controversial speech as protection from discipline.
Assuming Garcetti is not an arrow in the quiver
to defend a First Amendment claim related to instruction or scholarship, if you act thoughtfully to
assess the nature of speech, consider the possibility of it causing disruption, or clearly take action
for reasons other than the content of a professor’s
speech, you can still take steps to ensure your
institution is fulfilling its educational objectives
and mission. ■
About the author
Michael Porter is an attorney and partner at the
Miller Nash LLP law firm in Oregon. You may contact
him at Mike.Porter@MillerNash.com. ■
Vol. 15, Iss. 8
DOI: 10.1002/dap
The Advisory Board Speaks
Continued from page 1
and staff members need your leadership.
Communicate effectively
“The bottom line of leading a unit through change
is to take the time to talk to everyone and listen to
their concerns,” said Herman Berliner, provost and
senior vice president for academic affairs at Hofstra
For example, Hofstra opened a medical school
that is now in its fourth year. Many faculty members
were concerned that the new school would siphon
resources from other divisions. It was created through
a partnership with a local health system that includes hospitals and other health care facilities, so
funding sources from elsewhere in the university
were not needed.
From the beginning, Hofstra’s president took time
to explain how the partnership would function. “It
took multiple meetings for people to start to understand how it would work and not be a threat to
them,” Berliner said.
And when the University of
Florida faced budget cuts two
years in a row, how communication was handled made a big
difference in faculty and staff
stress levels, said Lucinda
Lavelli, dean of the College of
Fine Arts.
The first year, administrators were asked to keep
everything secret. The next
Lucinda lavelli year, they were told to be
transparent. Everyone affected was encouraged to speak their minds about
solutions. And the individuals at risk of being
laid off were consulted in the decision-making
When some of those individuals were eventually
laid off, Lavelli met with them in person and gave
them a letter of appreciation for their work.
Open communication made the process easier
to manage, Lavelli said. For a strategy like that to
work, administrators should keep the following
points in mind:
➢➢ Make sure stakeholders understand that although they are welcome to speak their minds, they
might not get what they want.
➢➢ Provide leadership training to directors so that
they have strategies for managing anxious faculty
members. The directors should help the faculty stay
focused on their work and not on the possibility of
April 2014
DOI: 10.1002/dap
Dean & Provost
losing their jobs, Lavelli said.
Hearing the viewpoints of faculty can be enlightening, Lavelli added. Sometimes you’re dealing with
extreme positions, and there’s nothing you can do
to accommodate them, she said.
Worthen also had to lay off
some part-time faculty members recently. Fortunately, she
was able to offer them adjunct
positions. And because they
had been involved in discussions about the situation, they
understood the decision that
was made. Having to lay them
off would not have gone nearly
as well if Worthen had not
developed relationships with
them in advance and com- cynthia worthen
municated as the decisionmaking process went on, she said.
When leaders are transparent, faculty and staff
members don’t have to “fill in the blanks,” Akande
said. When individuals know what’s coming, they
can prepare for it, he added. And leaders need to
articulate the desired outcomes of the change, he
“Leadership is not a solo act,” Akande said. Leaders need to listen to their constituents and give them
a voice in the process, he added.
Reassure faculty of their worth
Technological advances have many faculty members worried that they are becoming irrelevant, Lavelli
said. New strategies such as the flipped classroom
worry them.
At UF, peer-to-peer teaching strategies help them
explore new options in a nonthreatening way, Lavelli
said. And administrators reassure faculty members
that they don’t have to try every new idea. They stress
that the new technologies are tools, not replacements
for the professors, she added.
At Hofstra, faculty members can attend technology boot camps and have opportunities to learn
from IT professionals. “Some will probably remain
Share successes and article ideas!
Editor Joan Hope, Ph.D.
Phone: (561) 748-5094
Email: jhope@wiley.com
Fax: (561) 748-5094
© 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company
All rights reserved
Dean & Provost
The Advisory Board Speaks
uncomfortable, but more are understanding the new
technologies are a benefit,” Berliner said.
Provide time for change
Academic administrators need to create an environment where change can take place in an orderly
fashion, Berliner said. “It shouldn’t be under the gun
if at all possible,” he added.
That’s true for technological changes as well as other
types of change. For example,
if you ask a faculty member
to teach a class in a hybrid
or online format but give him
only two months to prepare,
that’s not enough time, Berliner said.
And providing as much
information as possible about
Herman Berliner factors that could lead to
change is an important part of creating a positive
environment for change.
For example, in the area where Hofstra is located,
declines in the number of K–12 students have led to
fewer Hofstra students pursuing education degrees.
Faculty in that division who will be considered for
tenure are increasingly nervous.
“If you see enrollment is going to be a factor,
you have to let them know exactly what the trends
are so they can plan ahead,” Berliner said. Faculty shouldn’t be learning about trends that could
impact tenure decisions at the end of the tenure
process, he said.
Berliner and Hofstra’s president visit every department on a regular basis. When enrollment trends
could have a significant impact on the department,
those are part of the discussion.
At Argosy, program deans are a critical part of
the enrollment plan. Worthen meets with them at
regularly scheduled times. They discuss enrollment
goals for the year. She updates them each enrollment
period on their program’s enrollment in relation to
the goals, and they discuss what they can do differently if a program is not on track. “That keeps
them knowledgeable and committed to change,”
Worthen said.
And if she has to give them bad news, they are
prepared for it, Worthen said.
Educate faculty
Many faculty members don’t understand all that
happens at a university, Berliner said. Their work
is very important, but the institution also needs
student affairs, counseling, scholarships and so on.
© 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company
All rights reserved
The more they recognize the institution’s complexity, the easier they are to work with when a problem
arises, he said.
Shared governance and the faculty senate provide
an effective mechanism for teaching faculty members
about the broader picture,
Lavelli said. It’s important to
do that before a crisis arises.
If you start the process when
there’s a problem that needs
to be solved, you won’t have
the faculty members’ trust,
she added.
Take care of yourself
“As leaders of our organizations, we have to be strong
for the organization when benjamin akande
changes are taking place,”
Akande said. That means that leaders need to be in
good …
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